Hierarchical Spatial Aggregation for Level-of-Detail Visualization of 3D Thematic Data.Vollmer, Jan Ole; Trapp, Matthias; Schumann, Heidrun; Döllner, Jürgen in ACM Transactions on Spatial Algorithms and Systems (2018). 4(3) 9:1--9:23.
Thematic maps are a common tool to visualize semantic data with a spatial reference. Combining thematic data with a geometric representation of their natural reference frame aids the viewer’s ability in gaining an overview, as well as perceiving patterns with respect to location; however, as the amount of data for visualization continues to increase, problems such as information overload and visual clutter impede perception, requiring data aggregation and level-of-detail visualization techniques. While existing aggregation techniques for thematic data operate in a 2D reference frame (i.e., map), we present two aggregation techniques for 3D spatial and spatiotemporal data mapped onto virtual city models that hierarchically aggregate thematic data in real time during rendering to support on-the-fly and on-demand level-of-detail generation. An object-based technique performs aggregation based on scene-specific objects and their hierarchy to facilitate per-object analysis, while the scene-based technique aggregates data solely based on spatial locations, thus supporting visual analysis of data with arbitrary reference geometry. Both techniques can apply different aggregation functions (mean, minimum, and maximum) for ordinal, interval, and ratio-scaled data and can be easily extended with additional functions. Our implementation utilizes the programmable graphics pipeline and requires suitably encoded data, i.e., textures or vertex attributes. We demonstrate the application of both techniques using real-world datasets, including solar potential analyses and the propagation of pressure waves in a virtual city model.
Interactive GPU-based Image Deformation for Mobile Devices.Vollmer, Jan Ole; Trapp, Matthias; Döllner, Jürgen (2016).
Interactive image deformation is an important feature of modern image processing pipelines. It is often used to create caricatures and animation for input images, especially photos. State-of-the-art image deformation techniques are based on transforming vertices of a mesh, which is textured by the input image, using affine transformations such as translation, and scaling. However, the resulting visual quality of the output image depends on the geometric resolution of the mesh. Performing these transformations on the CPU often further inhibits performance and quality. This is especially problematic on mobile devices where the limited computational power reduces the maximum achievable quality. To overcome these issue, we propose the concept of an intermediate deformation buffer that stores deformation information at a resolution independent of the mesh resolution. This allows the combination of a high-resolution buffer with a low-resolution mesh for interactive preview, as well as a high-resolution mesh to export the final image. Further, we present a fully GPU-based implementation of this concept, taking advantage of modern OpenGL ES features, such as compute shaders.