AbstractA treemap is a visualization that has been specifically designed to facilitate the exploration of tree-structured data and hierarchically structured data. The family of visualization techniques that use a visual metaphor for parent-child relationships based "on the property of containment" (Johnson, 1993) is commonly referred to as treemaps. However, as the number of variations of treemaps increases, it becomes increasingly important to distinguish clearly between techniques and their specific characteristics. This paper proposes to discern between Space-filling Treemap T_S , Containment Treemap T_C , Implicit Edge Representation Tree T_IE , and Mapped Tree T_MT for classification of hierarchy visualization techniques and highlights their respective properties. This taxonomy is created as hyponymy, i.e., its classes have an is-a relationship to each other: T_S ⊂ T_C ⊂ T_IE ⊂ T_MT . With this proposal, we intend to stimulate a discussion on a more unambiguous classification of treemaps and, furthermore, broaden what is understood by the concept of treemap itself.
Advanced Visual Metaphors and Techniques for Software Maps.Limberger, Daniel; Scheibel, Willy; Döllner, Jürgen; Trapp, Matthias (2019).
Abstract2D treemaps are a space-filling visualization technique that facilitate exploration of non-spatial, attributed, tree-structured data using the visual variables size and color. In extension thereto, 2.5D treemaps introduce height for additional information display. This extension entails challenges such as increased rendering effort, occlusion, or the need for navigation techniques that counterbalance the advantages of 2D treemaps to a certain degree. This paper presents a novel technique for combining 2D and 2.5D treemaps using multi-perspective views to leverage the advantages of both treemap types. It enables a new form of overview+detail visualization for complex treemaps and contributes new concepts for real-time rendering of and interaction with mixed-projection treemaps. The technique operates by tilting up inner nodes using affine transformations and animated state transitions. The mixed use of orthogonal and perspective projections is discussed and application examples that facilitate exploration of multi-variate data and benefit from the reduced interaction overhead are demonstrated.
Progressive High-Quality Rendering for Interactive Information Cartography using WebGL.Limberger, Daniel; Pursche, Marcel; Klimke, Jan; Döllner, Jürgen in Web3D '17 (2017). 4.
AbstractInformation cartography services provided via web-based clients using real-time rendering do not always necessitate a continuous stream of updates in the visual display. This paper shows how progressive rendering by means of multi-frame sampling and frame accumulation can introduce high-quality visual effects using robust and straightforward implementations. For it, (1) a suitable rendering loop is described, (2) WebGL limitations are discussed, and (3) an adaption of THREE.js featuring progressive anti-aliasing, screen-space ambient occlusion, and depth of field is detailed. Furthermore, sampling strategies are discussed and rendering performance is evaluated, emphasizing the low per-frame costs of this approach.
Mixed-Projection Treemaps: A Novel Approach Mixing 2D and 2.5D Treemaps.Limberger, Daniel; Scheibel, Willy; Trapp, Matthias; Döllner, Jürgen (2017).
Reducing Visual Complexity in Software Maps using Importance-based Aggregation of Nodes.Limberger, Daniel; Scheibel, Willy; Hahn, Sebastian; Döllner, Jürgen in Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Information Visualization Theory and Applications (2017).
AbstractThe 2.5D treemap represents a general purpose visualization technique to map multi-variate hierarchical data in a scalable, interactive, and consistent way used in a number of application fields. In this paper, we explore the capabilities of Declarative 3D for the web-based implementation of 2.5D treemap clients. Particularly, we investigate how X3DOM and XML3D can be used to implement clients with equivalent features that interactively display 2.5D treemaps with dynamic mapping of attributes. We also show a first step towards a glTF-based implementation. These approaches are benchmarked focusing on their interaction capabilities with respect to rendering and speed of dynamic data mapping. We discuss the results for our representative example of a complex 3D interactive visualization technique and summerize recommendations for improvements towards operational web clients.
Image Stylization by Interactive Oil Paint Filtering.Semmo, Amir; Limberger, Daniel; Kyprianidis, Jan Eric; Döllner, Jürgen in Computers & Graphics (2016). 55 157--171.
AbstractThis paper presents an interactive system for transforming images into an oil paint look. The system comprises two major stages. First, it derives dominant colors from an input image for feature-aware recolorization and quantization to conform with a global color palette. Afterwards, it employs non-linear filtering based on the smoothed structure adapted to the main feature contours of the quantized image to synthesize a paint texture in real-time. Our filtering approach leads to homogeneous outputs in the color domain and enables creative control over the visual output, such as color adjustments and per-pixel parametrizations by means of interactive painting. To this end, our system introduces a generalized brush-based painting interface that operates within parameter spaces to locally adjust the level of abstraction of the filtering effects. Several results demonstrate the various applications of our filtering approach to different genres of photography.
Evaluation of Sketchiness as a Visual Variable for 2.5D Treemaps.Limberger, Daniel; Fiedler, Carolin; Hahn, Sebastian; Trapp, Matthias; Döllner, Jürgen (2016).
AbstractSoftware maps are a commonly used tool for code quality monitoring in software-development projects and decision making processes. While providing an important visualization technique for the hierarchical system structure of a single software revision, they lack capabilities with respect to the visualization of changes over multiple revisions. This paper presents a novel technique for visualizing the evolution of the software system structure based on software metric trends. These trend maps extend software maps by using real-time rendering techniques for natural phenomena yielding additional visual variables that can be effectively used for the communication of changes. Therefore, trend data is automatically computed by hierarchically aggregating software metrics. We demonstrate and discuss the presented technique using two real world data sets of complex software systems.
Painting Per-Pixel Parametrization for Interactive Image Filtering.Limberger, Daniel; Döllner, Jürgen (2014).
AbstractWe present a photo-editing method that enables per-pixel parameter manipulation of image filtering by means of interactive painting. Predefined as well as custom image filters are exposed to the user, as a parametrizable composition of image operations. Brushes, as a sequences of actions mapping user inputs (in terms of brush shape, flow, pressure, etc.) to arbitrary functions or convolution operators, are used to draw within the parameter space. Our tool demonstrates that interactive painting can be used to, e.g., locally tweak inadequate parametrization and, furthermore, provides a blueprint for an open, collaborative photo-editing platform.
Interactive Software Maps for Web-Based Source Code Analysis.Limberger, Daniel; Wasty, Benjamin; Trümper, Jonas; Döllner, Jürgen (2013). 8.
AbstractSoftware maps -- linking rectangular 3D-Treemaps, software system structure, and performance indicators -- are commonly used to support informed decision making in software-engineering processes. A key aspect for this decision making is that software maps provide the structural context required for correct interpretation of these performance indicators. In parallel, source code repositories and collaboration platforms are an integral part of today's software-engineering tool set, but cannot properly incorporate software maps since implementations are only available as stand-alone applications. Hence, software maps are 'disconnected' from the main body of this tool set, rendering their use and provisioning overly complicated, which is one of the main reasons against regular use. We thus present a web-based rendering system for software maps that achieves both fast client-side page load time and interactive frame rates even with large software maps. We significantly reduce page load time by efficiently encoding hierarchy and geometry data for the net transport. Apart from that, appropriate interaction, layouting, and labeling techniques as well as common image enhancements aid evaluation of project-related quality aspects. Metrics provisioning can further be implemented by predefined attribute mappings to simplify communication of project specific quality aspects. The system is integrated into dashboards to demonstrate how our web-based approach makes software maps more accessible to many different stakeholders in software-engineering projects.
Photorealistic Rendering of Day and Night Sky Phenomena in Interactive 3D Geovirtual Environments.Limberger,; Daniel, (2013).
AbstractThis paper presents astronomical based rendering of skies as seen from low altitudes on earth, in respect to location, date, and time. The technique allows to compose an atmosphere with sun, multiple cloud layers, moon, bright stars, and Milky Way, into a holistic sky with unprecedented high level of detail and diversity. GPU generated, viewpoint-aligned billboards are used to render stars with approximated color, brightness, and scintillations. A similar approach is used to synthesize the moon considering lunar phase, earthshine, shading, and lunar eclipses. Atmosphere and clouds are rendered using existing methods adapted to our needs. Rendering is done in a single pass supporting interactive day-night cycles with low performance impact, and allows for easy integration in existing rendering systems. Results of our approach are compared to related renderings and photos, and the performance impact is discussed.