Hasso-Plattner-InstitutSDG am HPI
Hasso-Plattner-InstitutDSG am HPI

Nuhad Shaabani

On Discovering and Incrementally Updating Inclusion Dependencies

In today's world, many applications produce large amounts of data at an enormous rate. Analyzing such datasets for metadata is indispensable for ef­fectively understanding, storing, querying, manipulating, and mining them. Metadata summarizes technical properties of a dataset which rang from basic statistics to complex structures describing data dependencies. One type of dependencies is inclusion dependency (IND), which expresses subset­relationships between attributes of datasets. Therefore, inclusion dependen­cies are important for many data management applications in terms of data integration, query optimization, schema redesign, or integrity checking. So, the discovery of inclusion dependencies in unknown or legacy datasets is at the core of any data profiling effort. 

For exhaustively detecting all INDs in large datasets, we developed S­INDD++, a new algorithm that eliminates the shortcomings of existing IND-detection algorithms and significantly outperforms them. S-INDD++ is based on a novel concept for the attribute clustering for efficiently deriving INDs. Inferring INDs from our attribute clustering eliminates all redundant operations caused by other algorithms. S-INDD++ is also based on a novel partitioning strategy that enables discording a large number of candidates in early phases of the discovering process. Moreover, S-INDD++ does not require to fit a partition into the main memory-this is a highly appreciable property in the face of ever-growing datasets. S-INDD++ reduces up to 50 % of the runtime of the state-of-the-art approach.

None of the approach for discovering INDs is appropriate for application on dynamic datasets; they can not update the INDs after an update of the dataset without reprocessing it entirely. I developed the first approach for incrementally updating INDs in frequently changing datasets. I achieved that by reducing the problem of incrementally updating INDs to the incre­mentally updating the attribute clustering from which all INDs are efficiently derivable. I realized the update of the clusters by designing new operations to be applied to the clusters after every data update. The incremental update of INDs reduces the time of the complete rediscovery by up to 99.999 %. 

All existing algorithms for discovering n-ary INDs are based on the prin­ciple of candidate generation-they generate candidates and test their validity in the given data instance. The major disadvantage of this technique is the exponentially growing number of database accesses in terms of SQL queries required for validation. I proposed MIND2, the first approach for discovering n-ary INDs without candidate generation. MIND2 is based on a new math­ematical framework developed in this thesis for computing the maximum INDs from which all other n-ary INDs are derivable. M1ND2 is significantly more scalable and effective than hypergraph-based algorithms.