Modeling Collaborations in Adaptive Systems of Systems
Recently, due to an increasing demand on functionality and ﬂexibility, beforehand iso-lated systems have become interconnected to gain powerful adaptive System of Systems (SoS) solutions with an overall robust, ﬂexible and emergent behavior. The adaptive SoS comprises a variety of different system types ranging from small embedded to adaptive cyber-physical systems. On the one hand, each system is independent, follows a local strategy and optimizes its behavior to reach its goals. On the other hand, systems must cooperate with each other to enrich the overall functionality to jointly perform on the SoS level reaching global goals, which cannot be satisﬁed by one system alone. Due to difficulties of local and global behavior optimizations conﬂicts may arise between systems that have to be solved by the adaptive SoS.
This thesis proposes a modeling language that facilitates the description of an adaptive SoS by considering the adaptation capabilities in form of feedback loops as ﬁrst class enti-ties. Moreover, this thesis adopts the Models@runtime approach to integrate the available knowledge in the systems as runtime models into the modeled adaptation logic. Furthermore, the modeling language focuses on the description of system interactions within the adaptive SoS to reason about individual system functionality and how it emerges via collaborations to an overall joint SoS behavior. Therefore, the modeling language approach enables the speciﬁcation of local adaptive system behavior, the integration of knowledge in form of runtime models and the joint interactions via collaboration to place the available adaptive behavior in an overall layered, adaptive SoS architecture.
Beside the modeling language, this thesis proposes analysis rules to investigate the modeled adaptive SoS, which enables the detection of architectural patterns as well as design ﬂaws and pinpoints to possible system threats. Moreover, a simulation framework is presented, which allows the direct execution of the modeled SoS architecture. Therefore, the analysis rules and the simulation framework can be used to verify the interplay between systems as well as the modeled adaptation effects within the SoS. This thesis realizes the proposed concepts of the modeling language by mapping them to a state of the art standard from the automotive domain and thus, showing their applicability to actual systems. Finally, the modeling language approach is evaluated by remodeling up to date research scenarios from different domains, which demonstrates that the modeling language concepts are powerful enough to cope with a broad range of existing research problems.