Prof. Dr. Christoph Lippert

N-of-1 Trials: Digital Health Interventions


Traditionally, in our health system, treatment guidelines and health recommendations have been developed based on results of studies of large groups of individuals. However, the analysis of such large population-based studies only gives insights into factors affecting diseases and treatments on average. Hence, these results do not allow meaningful predictions whether an intervention will help a given single individual. For example, major drugs in therapeutic areas including asthma, depression, diabetes or rheumatoid arthritis have only shown an efficacy in 50%-60% of patients. Similarly, the effect of health interventions and lifestyle changes on chronic disease and health outcomes on an individual level if often unclear.

N-of-1 trials provide a framework to evaluate personalized treatments and derive invididual treatment effects. More specifically, N-of-1 trials are multi-crossover randomized controlled trials in a single participant, i.e. where the participant follows the different interventions of the study in a pre-specified or randomized order, and the outcome (e.g. improvement of lower back pain or rheumatoid arthritis pain) is compared between interventions.

Here, we are building a platform, developing and evaluating necessary tools and methods for the platform, and applying the platform to derive and evaluate individualized treatment effects.

Ongoing Survey for New Health Application

In an ongoing project, we are developing a new health application for improving your individual health and well-being.

Please participate in the brief survey ==>> HERE <<== to help us identify which health aspects are most important.


StudyU Platform for N-of-1 Trials

  • Develop a platform for designing, implementing, and conducting digital health interventions
  • User-centric N-of-1 trials 
  • See here for further details


  • Investigate statistical and machine learning models to estimate and test individual treatment effects in N-of-1 trials

Clinical use cases

  • Assess the effect of digital physical exercise interventions on chronic unspecific low back pain

  • Assess the short-term and medium-term effect of drinking coffee on heart rate and blood pressure