Arulselvan, Ashwin; Cseh, Ágnes; Groß, Martin; Manlove, David F.; Matuschke, Jannik **Many-to-one Matchings with Lower Quotas: Algorithms and Complexity**International Symposium Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC) 2015: 176–187

We study a natural generalization of the maximum weight many-to-one matching problem. We are given an undirected bipartite graph \(G = (A \cup P, E)\) with weights on the edges in \(E\), and with lower and upper quotas on the vertices in \(P\). We seek a maximum weight many-to-one matching satisfying two sets of constraints: vertices in A are incident to at most one matching edge, while vertices in P are either unmatched or they are incident to a number of matching edges between their lower and upper quota. This problem, which we call maximum weight many-to-one matching with lower and upper quotas (wmlq), has applications to the assignment of students to projects within university courses, where there are constraints on the minimum and maximum numbers of students that must be assigned to each project. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the complexity of wmlq from the viewpoints of classic polynomial time algorithms, fixed-parameter tractability, as well as approximability. We draw the line between NP -hard and polynomially tractable instances in terms of degree and quota constraints and provide efficient algorithms to solve the tractable ones. We further show that the problem can be solved in polynomial time for instances with bounded treewidth; however, the corresponding runtime is exponential in the treewidth with the maximum upper quota \($u_max$\) as basis, and we prove that this dependence is necessary unless FPT=W[1]. Finally, we also present an approximation algorithm for the general case with performance guarantee \(u_max + 1\), which is asymptotically best possible unless \(P=NP\).

Friedrich, Tobias; Kötzing, Timo; Krejca, Martin S.; Sutton, Andrew M. **The Benefit of Recombination in Noisy Evolutionary Search**International Symposium of Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC) 2015: 140–150

Practical optimization problems frequently include uncertainty about the quality measure, for example due to noisy evaluations. Thus, they do not allow for a straightforward application of traditional optimization techniques. In these settings meta-heuristics are a popular choice for deriving good optimization algorithms, most notably evolutionary algorithms which mimic evolution in nature. Empirical evidence suggests that genetic recombination is useful in uncertain environments because it can stabilize a noisy fitness signal. With this paper we want to support this claim with mathematical rigor. The setting we consider is that of noisy optimization. We study a simple noisy fitness function that is derived by adding Gaussian noise to a monotone function. First, we show that a classical evolutionary algorithm that does not employ sexual recombination (the \((\mu+1)\)-EA) cannot handle the noise efficiently, regardless of the population size. Then we show that an evolutionary algorithm which does employ sexual recombination (the Compact Genetic Algorithm, short: cGA) can handle the noise using a graceful scaling of the population.

Friedrich, Tobias; Katzmann, Maximilian; Krohmer, Anton **Unbounded Discrepancy of Deterministic Random Walks on Grids**International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC) 2015: 212–222

Random walks are frequently used in randomized algorithms. We study a derandomized variant of a random walk on graphs, called rotor-router model. In this model, instead of distributing tokens randomly, each vertex serves its neighbors in a fixed deterministic order. For most setups, both processes behave remarkably similar: Starting with the same initial configuration, the number of tokens in the rotor-router model deviates only slightly from the expected number of tokens on the corresponding vertex in the random walk model. The maximal difference over all vertices and all times is called single vertex discrepancy. Cooper and Spencer (2006) showed that on \(\mathbb{Z}^d\) the single vertex discrepancy is only a constant \(c_d\). Other authors also determined the precise value of \(c_d\) for \(d=1,2\). All these results, however, assume that initially all tokens are only placed on one partition of the bipartite graph \(\mathbb{Z}^d\). We show that this assumption is crucial by proving that otherwise the single vertex discrepancy can become arbitrarily large. For all dimensions \(d \ge 1\) and arbitrary discrepancies \(\ell \ge 0\), we construct configurations that reach a discrepancy of at least \(\ell\).