Issac, Davis; van Leeuwen, Erik Jan; Lauri, Juho; Lima, Paloma; Heggernes, Pinar **Rainbow Vertex Coloring Bipartite Graphs and Chordal Graphs**Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS) 2018: 1–13

Given a graph with colors on its vertices, a path is called a rainbow vertex path if all its internal vertices have distinct colors. We say that the graph is rainbow vertex-connected if there is a rainbow vertex path between every pair of its vertices. We study the problem of deciding whether the vertices of a given graph can be colored with at most k colors so that the graph becomes rainbow vertex-connected. Although edge-colorings have been studied extensively under similar constraints, there are significantly fewer results on the vertex variant that we consider. In particular, its complexity on structured graph classes was explicitly posed as an open question. We show that the problem remains NP-complete even on bipartite apex graphs and on split graphs. The former can be seen as a first step in the direction of studying the complexity of rainbow coloring on sparse graphs, an open problem which has attracted attention but limited progress. We also give hardness of approximation results for both bipartite and split graphs. To complement the negative results, we show that bipartite permutation graphs, interval graphs, and block graphs can be rainbow vertex-connected optimally in polynomial time.

Göbel, Andreas; Lagodzinski, J. A. Gregor; Seidel, Karen **Counting Homomorphisms to Trees Modulo a Prime**Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS) 2018: 49:1–49:13

Many important graph theoretic notions can be encoded as counting graph homomorphism problems, such as partition functions in statistical physics, in particular independent sets and colourings. In this article we study the complexity of~\($\#_p\textsc{HomsTo}H$\), the problem of counting graph homomorphisms from an input graph to a graph \($H$\) modulo a prime number~\($p$\). Dyer and Greenhill proved a dichotomy stating that the tractability of non-modular counting graph homomorphisms depends on the structure of the target graph. Many intractable cases in non-modular counting become tractable in modular counting due to the common phenomenon of cancellation. In subsequent studies on counting modulo~\($2$\), however, the influence of the structure of~\($H$\) on the tractability was shown to persist, which yields similar dichotomies. Our main result states that for every tree~\($H$\) and every prime~\($p$\) the problem \($\#_p\textsc{HomsTo}H$\) is either polynomial time computable or \($\#_p\mathsf{P}$\)-complete. This relates to the conjecture of Faben and Jerrum stating that this dichotomy holds for every graph \($H$\) when counting modulo~2. In contrast to previous results on modular counting, the tractable cases of \($\#_p\textsc{HomsTo}H$\) are essentially the same for all values of the modulo when \($H$\) is a tree. To prove this result, we study the structural properties of a homomorphism. As an important interim result, our study yields a dichotomy for the problem of counting weighted independent sets in a bipartite graph modulo some prime~\($p$\). These results are the first suggesting that such dichotomies hold not only for the one-bit functions of the modulo~2 case but also for the modular counting functions of all primes~\($p$\).