We contribute one paper each to the following conferences.
The Symposium on Fundamentals of Computation Theory (FCT) is a biennial meeting for researchers in algorithms, complexity, and logic. It is one of the main forums for TCS in Northern Europe. FCT 2019 is hosted by the University of Copenhagen, Denmark, August 11-14.
The International Conference on Algorithms and Complexity (CIAC) is a scientific conference dedicated to computational complexity as well as the design and analysis of efficient algorithms and data structures. It has its origin in the yearly meetings of the Italian TCS community. The 11th edition of the conference will be held in Rome, Italy, May 27-29 2019.
Casel, Katrin; Fernau, Henning; Khosravian Ghadikolaei, Mehdi; Monnot, Jerome; Sikora, FlorianExtension of some edge graph problems: standard and parameterized complexity. Fundamentals of Computation Theory (FCT) 2019: 185-200
We consider extension variants of some edge optimization problems in graphs containing the classical Edge Cover, Matching, and Edge Dominating Set problems. Given a graph \(G=(V,E)\) and an edge set \(U \subseteq E\), it is asked whether there exists an inclusion-wise minimal (resp., maximal) feasible solution \(E'\) which satisfies a given property, for instance, being an edge dominating set (resp., a matching) and containing the forced edge set \(U\) (resp., avoiding any edges from the forbidden edge set \(E U\)). We present hardness results for these problems, for restricted instances such as bipartite or planar graphs. We counter-balance these negative results with parameterized complexity results. We also consider the price of extension, a natural optimization problem variant of extension problems, leading to some approximation results.
Casel, Katrin; Fernau, Henning; Khosravian Ghadikolaei, Mehdi; Monnot, Jerome; Sikora, FlorianExtension of vertex cover and independent set in some classes of graphs and generalizations. International Conference on Algorithms and Complexity (CIAC) 2019: 124-136
We study extension variants of the classical problems Vertex Cover and Independent Set. Given a graph \(G = (V, E)\) and a vertex set \(U \subseteq V\), it is asked if there exists a minimal vertex cover (resp. maximal independent set) \(S\) with \(U \subseteq S\) (resp. \(U \supseteq S\)). Possibly contradicting intuition, these problems tend to be NP-complete, even in graph classes where the classical problem can be solved efficiently. Yet, we exhibit some graph classes where the extension variant remains polynomial-time solvable. We also study the parameterized complexity of theses problems, with parameter \(|U|\), as well as the optimality of simple exact algorithms under ETH. All these complexity considerations are also carried out in very restricted scenarios, be it degree or topological restrictions (bipartite, planar or chordal graphs). This also motivates presenting some explicit branching algorithms for degree-bounded instances. We further discuss the price of extension, measuring the distance of \(U\) to the closest set that can be extended, which results in natural optimization problems related to extension problems for which we discuss polynomial-time approximability.
Bläsius, Thomas; Fischbeck, Philipp; Friedrich, Tobias; Schirneck, MartinUnderstanding the Effectiveness of Data Reduction in Public Transportation Networks. Workshop on Algorithms and Models for the Web Graph (WAW) 2019: 87-101
Given a public transportation network of stations and connections, we want to find a minimum subset of stations such that each connection runs through a selected station. Although this problem is NP-hard in general, real-world instances are regularly solved almost completely by a set of simple reduction rules. To explain this behavior, we view transportation networks as hitting set instances and identify two characteristic properties, locality and heterogeneity. We then devise a randomized model to generate hitting set instances with adjustable properties. While the heterogeneity does influence the effectiveness of the reduction rules, the generated instances show that locality is the significant factor. Beyond that, we prove that the effectiveness of the reduction rules is independent of the underlying graph structure. Finally, we show that high locality is also prevalent in instances from other domains, facilitating a fast computation of minimum hitting sets.