Clean Citation Style 002
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Bläsius, Thomas; Friedrich, Tobias; Katzmann, Maximilian; Meyer, Ulrich; Penschuck, Manuel; Weyand, Christopher Efficiently Generating Geometric Inhomogeneous and Hyperbolic Random Graphs. European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA) 2019: 21:221:14
EATCS Best Paper Award
Hyperbolic random graphs (HRG) and geometric inhomogeneous random graphs (GIRG) are two similar generative network models that were designed to resemble complex real world networks. In particular, they have a powerlaw degree distribution with controllable exponent \(\beta\), and high clustering that can be controlled via the temperature \(T\). We present the first implementation of an efficient GIRG generator running in expected linear time. Besides varying temperatures, it also supports underlying geometries of higher dimensions. It is capable of generating graphs with ten million edges in under a second on commodity hardware. The algorithm can be adapted to HRGs. Our resulting implementation is the fastest sequential HRG generator, despite the fact that we support nonzero temperatures. Though nonzero temperatures are crucial for many applications, most existing generators are restricted to \(T = 0\). We also support parallelization, although this is not the focus of this paper. Moreover, we note that our generators draw from the correct probability distribution, i.e., they involve no approximation. Besides the generators themselves, we also provide an efficient algorithm to determine the nontrivial dependency between the average degree of the resulting graph and the input parameters of the GIRG model. This makes it possible to specify \(\bar{d}\) as input and obtain a graph with expected average degree \(\bar{d}\). Moreover, we investigate the differences between HRGs and GIRGs, shedding new light on the nature of the relation between the two models. Although HRGs represent, in a certain sense, a special case of the GIRG model, we find that a straightforward inclusion does not hold in practice. However, the difference is negligible for most use cases.

Friedrich, Tobias; Katzmann, Maximilian; Krohmer, Anton Unbounded Discrepancy of Deterministic Random Walks on Grids. SIAM Journal on Discrete Mathematics 2018: 24412452
Random walks are frequently used in randomized algorithms. We study a derandomized variant of a random walk on graphs, called rotorrouter model. In this model, instead of distributing tokens randomly, each vertex serves its neighbors in a fixed deterministic order. For most setups, both processes behave remarkably similar: Starting with the same initial configuration, the number of tokens in the rotorrouter model deviates only slightly from the expected number of tokens on the corresponding vertex in the random walk model. The maximal difference over all vertices and all times is called single vertex discrepancy. Cooper and Spencer (2006) showed that on \(\mathbb{Z}^{d}\) the single vertex discrepancy is only a constant \(c_d\). Other authors also determined the precise value of \(c_d\) for \(d=1,2\). All these results, however, assume that initially all tokens are only placed on one partition of the bipartite graph \(\mathbb{Z}^{d}\). We show that this assumption is crucial by proving that otherwise the single vertex discrepancy can become arbitrarily large. For all dimensions \(d\geq1\) and arbitrary discrepancies~\(\ell \geq 0\), we construct configurations that reach a discrepancy of at least \(\ell\).

Bläsius, Thomas; Friedrich, Tobias; Katzmann, Maximilian; Krohmer, Anton Hyperbolic Embeddings for NearOptimal Greedy Routing. Algorithm Engineering and Experiments (ALENEX) 2018: 199208
Greedy routing computes paths between nodes in a network by successively moving to the neighbor closest to the target with respect to coordinates given by an embedding into some metric space. Its advantage is that only local information is used for routing decisions. We present different algorithms for generating graph embeddings into the hyperbolic plane that are well suited for greedy routing. In particular our embeddings guarantee that greedy routing always succeeds in reaching the target and we try to minimize the lengths of the resulting greedy paths. We evaluate our algorithm on multiple generated and real wold networks. For networks that are generally assumed to have a hidden underlying hyperbolic geometry, such as the Internet graph, we achieve nearoptimal results, i.e., the resulting greedy paths are only slightly longer than the corresponding shortest paths. In the case of the Internet graph, they are only \(6\%\) longer when using our best algorithm, which greatly improves upon the previous best known embedding, whose creation required substantial manual intervention.

Bläsius, Thomas; Freiberger, Cedric; Friedrich, Tobias; Katzmann, Maximilian; MontenegroRetana, Felix; Thieffry, Marianne Efficient Shortest Paths in ScaleFree Networks with Underlying Hyperbolic Geometry. International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP) 2018: 20:120:14
A common way to accelerate shortest path algorithms on graphs is the use of a bidirectional search, which simultaneously explores the graph from the start and the destination. It has been observed recently that this strategy performs particularly well on scalefree realworld networks. Such networks typically have a heterogeneous degree distribution (e.g., a powerlaw distribution) and high clustering (i.e., vertices with a common neighbor are likely to be connected themselves). These two properties can be obtained by assuming an underlying hyperbolic geometry. To explain the observed behavior of the bidirectional search, we analyze its running time on hyperbolic random graphs and prove that it is \(\tilde{O}(n\)\(^{2  1/ \alpha}+\)\(n^{1/(2\alpha)}\)\(+ \delta_{\max})\) with high probability, where \(\alpha\)\(\in\)\((0.5, 1)\) controls the powerlaw exponent of the degree distribution, and \(\delta_{\max}\) is the maximum degree. This bound is sublinear, improving the obvious worstcase linear bound. Although our analysis depends on the underlying geometry, the algorithm itself is oblivious to it.

Bläsius, Thomas; Friedrich, Tobias; Katzmann, Maximilian; Krohmer, Anton; Striebel, Jonathan Towards a Systematic Evaluation of Generative Network Models. Workshop on Algorithms and Models for the Web Graph (WAW) 2018: 99114
Generative graph models play an important role in network science. Unlike realworld networks, they are accessible for mathematical analysis and the number of available networks is not limited. The explanatory power of results on generative models, however, heavily depends on how realistic they are. We present a framework that allows for a systematic evaluation of generative network models. It is based on the question whether realworld networks can be distinguished from generated graphs with respect to certain graph parameters. As a proof of concept, we apply our framework to four popular random graph models (ErdősRényi, BarabásiAlbert, ChungLu, and hyperbolic random graphs). Our experiments for example show that all four models are bad representations for Facebook's social networks, while ChungLu and hyperbolic random graphs are good representations for other networks, with different strengths and weaknesses.