Prof. Dr. Christoph Lippert

StudyU Platform

Find more information and directly try out StudyU at the homepage here.


  • Upcoming presentations on StudyU and new methodology on N-of-1 Trials in 2024:
    • DMEA 2024
    • Hauptstadtkongress 2024
    • International Symposium on Diabetes and Nutrition in Uppsala (Sweden)
    • Joint Statistical Meeting in Portland (USA)
    • Come and find us if you are there!
  • Johannes Vedder will present StudyU at the Heidelberg Spring Symposium on Medical Informatics on May 8! Here is the program.
  • Congratulations Pauline and Johannes, and the entire team to being awarded the Best Idea Award at the HPI 2022 with StudyU !! Here is some more information: Link1 and Link2 
  • On June 8, 2023, we had the honor of introducing StudyU to Prof. Dr. Karl Lauterbach, the German Federal Minister of Health, during his visit to the Digital Health Cluster at the Hasso Plattner Institute (HPI). See here for more details.



Traditionally, in our health system, treatment guidelines and health recommendations have been developed based on results of studies of large groups of individuals. However, the analysis of such large population-based studies only gives insights into factors affecting diseases and treatments on average. Hence, these results do not allow meaningful predictions whether an intervention will help a given single individual. For example, major drugs in therapeutic areas including asthma, depression, diabetes or rheumatoid arthritis have only shown an efficacy in 50%-60% of patients. Similarly, the effect of health interventions and lifestyle changes on chronic disease and health outcomes on an individual level if often unclear.

N-of-1 trials provide a framework to evaluate personalized treatments and derive invididual treatment effects. More specifically, N-of-1 trials are multi-crossover randomized controlled trials in a single participant, i.e. where the participant follows the different interventions of the study in a pre-specified or randomized order, and the outcome (e.g. improvement of lower back pain or rheumatoid arthritis pain) is compared between interventions.

Here, we are building a platform called StudyU, developing and evaluating necessary tools and methods for the platform, and applying the platform to derive and evaluate individualized treatment effects. Also, we are working on user-centric N-of-1 trials and have developed the StudyMe tool.


N-of-1 trials are the gold standard study design to evaluate individual treatment effects and derive personalized treatment strategies. Digital tools have the potential to initiate a new era of N-of-1 trials in terms of scale and scope, but fully-functional platforms are not yet available. Here, we present the StudyU platform which includes the StudyU designer and StudyU app. With the StudyU designer, scientists are given a web application to digitally specify, publish, and conduct N-of-1 trials. The StudyU app is a smartphone application with innovative user-centric elements for participants to partake in the published trials and assess the effects of different interventions on their health. Thereby, the StudyU platform allows clinicians and researchers worldwide to easily design and conduct digital N-of-1 trials in a safe manner. We envision that StudyU can change the landscape of personalized treatments both for patients and healthy individuals, as a free collaborative tool for researchers, and as a tool that can be integrated in clinical practice.

StudyU is fully open-source, has been initiated and further developed in to date 5 master projects, by >10 student assistants ant more collaborators.


  • The StudyU platform contains the StudyU designer and the StudyU app, which allow to design and implement, and then to conduct the study, respectively.

Completed and ongoing trials using StudyU

  • FAB Study: Free of Antidepressiva - assessing open-label placebo treatment for antidepressant discontinuation symptoms: study homepage, trial registration, protocol paper (UKE Hamburg, HSU)

  • ASIP Study: Evaluation of easy-to-implement anti-stress interventions in a series of N-of-1 trials: trial registration, protocol paper (Charité Berlin)

  • Effect of fasting on side effects in endocrine therapy with aromatase inhibitors in breast cancer survivors (Charité Berlin, RB Hospital Stuttgart, University of Würzburg)

  • Effect of participant-selected interventions on sleep health (HPI)

  • Effect of acne creams on acne severity through smartphone pictures: paper (Harvard University)

  • Effect of non-pharmacological interventions to improve chronic pain in clinical care (University of Queensland, Australia)

  • Comparison of different drug dosages in health failure patients (Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, USA)

  • Adaptive N-of-1 trials of physical exercise on pain in endometriosis patients: paper (Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, USA)

  • Comprehensive Exploration of User and Clinician Engagement Motivations and Experiences Using the StudyMe platform and StudyU Apps (Ghana)


  • Konigorski S, Wernicke S, Slosarek T, Zenner AM, Strelow N, Ruether FD, Henschel F, Manaswini M, Pottbäcker F, Edelman JA, Owoyele B, Danieletto M, Golden E, Zweig M, Nadkarni G, Böttinger E (2022). StudyU: a platform for designing and conducting innovative digital N-of-1 trials. J Med Internet Research  24(6): e35884. https://doi.org/10.2196/35884.
  • Müller A, Konigorski S, Meißner C, Fadai T, Warren CV, Falkenberg I, Kircher T, Nestoriuc Y (2023). Study Protocol: Combined N-of-1 Trials to Assess Open-Label Placebo Treatment for Antidepressant Discontinuation Symptoms [FAB-study]. BMC Psychiatry 23: 749. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-023-05184-y
  • Vetter VM, Kurth T, Konigorski S (2024). Evaluation of easy-to-implement anti-stress interventions in a series of N-of-1 trials: Study protocol of the Anti-Stress Intervention Among Physicians Study (ASIP). medRxiv. https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2024.04.22.24306161v1


StudyMe App


N-of-1 trials are multi-crossover self-experiments that allow individuals to systematically evaluate the effect of interventions on their personal health goals. Although several tools for N-of-1 trials exist, none support non-experts in conducting their own user-centric trials. Here, we have developed StudyMe, an open-source mobile application that offers users flexibility and guidance in configuring every component of their trials. Through an initial survey with 272 participants, we learned that individuals are interested in a variety of personal health aspects and have unique ideas on how to improve them. In an iterative, user-centered development process with intermediate user tests, we developed StudyMe that features an educational part to communicate N-of-1 trial concepts. A final empirical evaluation of StudyMe showed that all participants were able to create their own trials successfully using StudyMe and the app achieved a very good usability rating. Our findings suggest that StudyMe provides a significant step towards enabling individuals to apply a systematic science-oriented approach to personalize health-related interventions and behavior modifications in their everyday lives.


  • An illustrative video of StudyMe can be found here.


You can find the preprint of our manuscript with a full description of StudyMe here:

Zenner AM, Böttinger E,Konigorski S (2021). StudyMe: a new mobile app for user-centric N-of-1 Trials. arXiv:2108.00320. http://arxiv.org/abs/2108.00320.