Clean Citation Style 002
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Gao, Ziyuan; Jain, Sanjay; Khoussainov, Bakhadyr; Li, Wei; Melnikov, Alexander; Seidel, Karen; Stephan, Frank Random Subgroups of Rationals. International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS) 2019: 25:125:14
This paper introduces and studies a notion of algorithmic randomness for subgroups of rationals. Given a randomly generated additive subgroup \((G,+)\) of rationals, two main questions are addressed: first, what are the modeltheoretic and recursiontheoretic properties of \((G,+)\); second, what learnability properties can one extract from \(G\) and its subclass of finitely generated subgroups? For the first question, it is shown that the theory of \((G,+)\) coincides with that of the additive group of integers and is therefore decidable; furthermore, while the word problem for \(G\) with respect to any generating sequence for \(G\) is not even semidecidable, one can build a generating sequence \(\beta\) such that the word problem for \(G\) with respect to \(\beta\) is corecursively enumerable (assuming that the set of generators of \(G\) is limitrecursive). In regard to the second question, it is proven that there is a generating sequence \(\beta\) for \(G\) such that every nontrivial finitely generated subgroup of \(G\) is recursively enumerable and the class of all such subgroups of \(G\) is behaviourally correctly learnable, that is, every nontrivial finitely generated subgroup can be semantically identified in the limit (again assuming that the set of generators of \(G\) is limitrecursive). On the other hand, the class of nontrivial finitely generated subgroups of \(G\) cannot be syntactically identified in the limit with respect to any generating sequence for \(G\). The present work thus contributes to a recent line of research studying algorithmically random infinite structures and uncovers an interesting connection between the arithmetical complexity of the set of generators of a randomly generated subgroup of rationals and the learnability of its finitely generated subgroups.

Göbel, Andreas; Lagodzinski, J. A. Gregor; Seidel, Karen Counting Homomorphisms to Trees Modulo a Prime. International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS) 2018: 49:149:13
Many important graph theoretic notions can be encoded as counting graph homomorphism problems, such as partition functions in statistical physics, in particular independent sets and colourings. In this article we study the complexity of~\($\#_p\textsc{HomsTo}H$\), the problem of counting graph homomorphisms from an input graph to a graph \($H$\) modulo a prime number~\($p$\). Dyer and Greenhill proved a dichotomy stating that the tractability of nonmodular counting graph homomorphisms depends on the structure of the target graph. Many intractable cases in nonmodular counting become tractable in modular counting due to the common phenomenon of cancellation. In subsequent studies on counting modulo~\($2$\), however, the influence of the structure of~\($H$\) on the tractability was shown to persist, which yields similar dichotomies. Our main result states that for every tree~\($H$\) and every prime~\($p$\) the problem \($\#_p\textsc{HomsTo}H$\) is either polynomial time computable or \($\#_p\mathsf{P}$\)complete. This relates to the conjecture of Faben and Jerrum stating that this dichotomy holds for every graph \($H$\) when counting modulo~2. In contrast to previous results on modular counting, the tractable cases of \($\#_p\textsc{HomsTo}H$\) are essentially the same for all values of the modulo when \($H$\) is a tree. To prove this result, we study the structural properties of a homomorphism. As an important interim result, our study yields a dichotomy for the problem of counting weighted independent sets in a bipartite graph modulo some prime~\($p$\). These results are the first suggesting that such dichotomies hold not only for the onebit functions of the modulo~2 case but also for the modular counting functions of all primes~\($p$\).

Issac, Davis; van Leeuwen, Erik Jan; Lauri, Juho; Lima, Paloma; Heggernes, Pinar Rainbow Vertex Coloring Bipartite Graphs and Chordal Graphs. Proceedings of the 43rd International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science 2018