Born in London in 1912 and died in 1954.
His innovation: He was a British logician, mathematician, cryptanalyst and computer scientist, and is now considered one of the most influential theorists of early computer development. Time magazine named Turing one of the 100 most important people of the 20th century. Most notably, Turing had a major impact on AI development.
His story: In 1950s Britain, homosexuality was a crime, so Turing went on trial in 1952 and was given a choice: Two years in prison or chemical castration. He opted for castration. This hormone treatment led to severe depression. In 1954, Turing was found dead in his home - suicide is suspected. In 2013, Alan Turing was pardoned. In 2017, a law, named after him, followed that pardoned almost all citizens convicted of homosexuality: the Turing Law.